Yun Naehyeon 윤내현. 2003 (2014 5th reprint). 우리 고대사: 상상에서 현실로 (Our Ancient History: from imagination to reality). Paju, Gyeonggi province: 지식산업사. 231 pages.
Contents Forward – Why are we currently talking about ancient history?
I. Minjok history must be shared by [both] South and North.
1. We must restore the homogeneity (동질성) of the [Korean] gyeore (겨레 ‘race’) 2. The South-North Joint Academic Conference opens in Pyeongyang 3. Presenting the “Joint Statement” (공동보고문) of the South-North Academic Conference 4. Preparing the academic conference whilst pressed for time 5. We are the same minjok [and] one bloodline [see below for translation] 6. Dan’gun must not become an object of disputes
II. What does [our] minjok mythology tell [us]?
1. Is the Dan’gun myth a fabricated tale? 2. The Dan’gun myth is our ancient history (상고사) 3. The Dan’gun myth is the origin [representation] (원형) of a complex (종합) culture 4. ‘Three’ is the basis for the structure of our consciousness (의식구조) 5. The Dan’gun myth lives in the [Korean] minjok‘s history 6. What is it we are pursuing? 7. Let’s revive the Hong’ik-in’gan philosophy (이념)
III. How is our historical consciousness?
1. Did our minjok and culture come from outside [of the Korean peninsula]? 2. Perhaps our stuff (것) went out [to the world] 3. Must we only match our history to the Western frameworks? 4. The societal structure of our country and the West is different 5. Let’s take an interest in the ancient remains in the region of Manchuria 6. The Japanese Mimana office (임나일본부) was located in Okayama [prefecture of Japan] 7. Let’s know about not only Go Seonji [高仙芝 Gao Xianzhi] but also Yi Jeonggi [李正己 Li Zhengji] 8. Let’s take modern Chinese research into ancient history as a good example (교훈 lit. ‘precept’)
IV. What does ancient history tell [us]?
1. Who were the central tribe (종족) of our minjok? 2. Were the Dong’i [東夷 Dongyi/East Yi] Chinese or our minjok? 3. In the Shiji [史記] why was Gi Ja unable to [achieve] independence? 4. How was our minjok‘s penetration/advancement into outside [regions] (대외진출) in the ancient period? 5. What kind of reforms did Laozi and Confucius dream of? 6. What lesson (교훈) does the Shiji teach us? 7. What is the “Bayi-liezhuan” (백이열전) chapter [in the Shiji] telling us?
V. Who are we?
1. Establishing the very first country in East Asia 2. How is the ability of our minjok 3. There is something that we must absolutely know/understand 4. What are the problems with our society? 5. Confirming the psychosis of our society 6. What is it we must currently do? 7. Surveying (전망) the future of our minjok
VI. A history of unification; now it must become different
1. What is the Gaecheon-jeol (개천절) [national foundation festival] to our minjok? 2. Do we have true ‘ethnic nationalism’ (민족주의 lit. ‘minjok-ism’)? 3. The structural scheme (체계) of our ancient history is wrong 4. In our history, which period is the ‘ancient [period]’ (고대)? 5. We must focus on the periods of unification.
Afterword – Standing alone, but not lonely
Excerpts from “5. We are the same minjok [and] one bloodline” (우리는 같은 민족 한 핏줄이다)
page 29 Dan’gun (Dan’gun Wanggeom) is the founding progenitor of the country (건국 시조) of our minjok; Old Joseon is the first state (국가) in our history, [a history] which formed our minjok. Consequently Dan’gun and Old Joseon exist [with] the meaning of representing our minjok and [its] beginning (출발 lit. departure [point])…
pages 31~33 Dan’gun Joseon established by Dan’gun Wanggeom carries an extremely important meaning in the history of our minjok. That is because, through the establishment of Dan’gun Joseon, i.e. Old Joseon, the populous (주민들) residing in the Korean peninsula and Manchuria all became the people (백성) of the same country and formed a [single] minjok [ethnic nation]. Truly it was the starting point of our minjok‘s history.
We often say [we are] the same minjok and a single bloodline (한 핏줄). We also say that Dan’gun (Dan’gun Wanggeom) was the progenitor of our gyeore (겨레 ‘race’). Speaking scientifically, it is not possible for our gyeore to have been a single bloodline. Further, Dan’gun Wanggeom could not have been the genetic (혈연적) progenitor of our gyeore.
Many people were living here and there [throughout] the Korean peninsula and Manchuria since the Paleolithic [from] at least several hundred thousand years ago. However, there is no evidence that they were [all] the descendents of a single person [i.e. of Dan’gun Wanggeom]. What’s more, people 50,000 years back were not even fully evolved yet. There were people in the process of evolution. The appearance of people on the same level [of development] as recent modern humans (現生人類) was between 50 and 35 thousand years ago. Consequently it is difficult to view them as having been a single bloodline to say nothing of [the idea] that we are their descendants.
Archaeologically, the period in which Dan’gun Wanggeom established Old Joseon was the Bronze Age [which] came after the long periods termed Paleolithic and Neolithic. At that time there were many people living here and there [throughout] the Korean peninsula and Manchuria. One amongst them was Dan’gun Wanggeom. Consequently it is not possible for our gyeore who were formed as the descendants of [those] many peoples residing throughout the Korean peninsula and Manchuria, to all have been the genetic (혈연적) descendants of Dan’gun Wanggeom.
In that case, is it wrong when we talk [about] being the same minjok and a single bloodline? It is not. Through Dan’gun Wanggeom founding Old Joseon we first formed one minjok and gyeore. Thus he was both the founder of our state (건국 시조) and simultaneously the progenitor of minjok and gyeore. [This] is because he was not only the person to first establish a country, but was the person who caused [our] minjok and gyeore to form (출현 lit.’appear’).
The dan’gun of the Old Joseon period were not only political rulers but also the highest religious leaders. Like the Chinese [notion of emperors being the] celestial son (天子), they were recognised as the son – actually meaning descendants – of Haneu-nim god (하느님).
Revering Haneu-nim (Hwan’in) as the supreme god, our ancient ancestors believed (생각하다) themselves to be the descendants of Dan’gun Wanggeom who was the founder of their nation (국가), the progenitor of [their] minjok and gyeore, and the son of Haneu-nim; thus they sought to obtain [for themselves] the holiness of a ‘heavenly descended people’ (天孫族). It is this kind of idea/belief (생각) which is being represented (정리되다 lit. ‘organised/ordered’) when we talk of being the same minjok and one bloodline. Consequently it is our consciousness (의식), intention/volition (의지) and emotion/sentiment/feeling (정서). It is ahead of science.
The terms ‘Dan’gun Joseon’ and ‘Dan’gun minjok‘ contain the notion (의미 lit. ‘meaning’) of [being] the same minjok and single bloodline with the [the same] consciousness, volition and emotion [that] our minjok [has possessed] for thousands of years. There is no need to scientifically deconstruct these terms which tightly bind our minjok, our gyeore.
In addition to the translated chapters linked above, see also some further miscellaneous extracts.